Web3 Playbook

Objective: Provide all the resources required by Web3 entrepreneurs, teams and community to succeed at #BuildWeb3

Background: Best time to BUIDL Web3 is now! 

We are no strangers to most great projects built during tumultuous market conditions. In order to make sure the Crypto community stays ahead of the curve, we want to call the builders with breakthrough ideas to make the most of this market and create products of value.

To do our bit to encourage the community, we are creating this ‘Playbook’ to share the fundamentals of building a great Web3 project. This will be an indicative, and in time comprehensive bucket list that you can use as a reference to navigate through your enterprise journey. 

To add your feedback and suggestions to the Playbook, click on the following document: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1pV_hBWQpDnQXvu-YeZOsGo4us50q-NrNzxjvkaZrq7o/edit?pli=1

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Agenda: 

Phase 1 – We will be introducing you to establishing your foundation from scratch

Phase 2 – FAQs on fundraising in Web3, list of investors, key projects backed by them

Phase 3 – Ways to identify the right protocol to build 

Phase 4 – Insights on tokenization, designing the token allocation for community, user identification

That’s not all. In order to not limit ourselves to resources, we are encouraging everyone with knowledge of building Web3 products, insights for new founders, as well as aspiring builders to contribute to the Playbook. 

There is a separate section for questions which we will moderate and respond to in terms of an ongoing FAQ series.

All the documents you will need are accessible to everyone and anyone can share their inputs and comments.

We invite you to share your valuable insights on #BuildWeb3 with us. Your responses will be attributed to your username and will be visible to fellow Web3 enthusiasts.

Let’s make this a memorable time for the Web3 builder community!

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Foundation

When launching a web3 startup, you actually don’t need a ‘company’. Which means there’s no need to have a for profit setup, no need to have equity holders etc. In fact, having equity holders leads to a clash in the decentralized philosophy as the question then is, are you working for the shareholders or the community? 

However, there are centralized interactions such as subscribing to SAAS products, buying equipment, hiring employees, renting office space etc that require you to have offline entities. For such use cases it’s best to set up a non profit foundation. This non profit foundation can be assigned a certain percentage of the network tokens in order to effectively function on behalf of the network. 

The main purpose it will serve will be ensuring true decentralization in every sense. Especially when the foundation is at its earlier stages, it is important to foster a sense of giving to the community by setting up operational goals. DAOs will be governed by algorithms and will be accessible to the community worldwide. It’s not compulsory to have written agreements as most of the protocol will be digitally signed.

Over time, the objective of the foundation should be to set up a DAO and transfer any remaining assets over to the DAO. Post that, the DAO can allocate a budget for the foundation as required. DAOs would also need to figure out how they can continue to earn income in order to effectively manage and run the network/protocol/DApp. The DAO should also in time develop a mechanism where incentives are sent to token holders or rightful recipients automatically without any intervention. There should also be a channel where feedback or suggestions can be sent to members, and actions recorded publicly in response to that. 

The below countries are popular options for setting up a non profit foundation. 

  1. Switzerland 
  2. Cayman Islands
  3. Marshall Islands
  4. Wyoming, United States of America
  5. British Virgin Islands
  6. Panama
  7. Singapore

For DAOs which will generate profit, the following countries can be considered to transition from a non profit to a DAO 

  1. Liechtenstein
  2. The Bahamas
  3. Panama
  4. Wyoming, United States of America

Some popular Web3 foundations 

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Shardeum Foundation

HQ – Switzerland

Objective – Enabling users to build their projects on the Shardeum platform and creating optimal ways to share information with the community and create transparency. The foundation will eventually function as a DAO

11% of the tokens have been allocated to the community

Services – Build awareness around Crypto, help the community create innovative Web3 projects 

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Ethereum Foundation

HQ – Switzerland

Objective – The Ethereum Foundation’s mission is to promote and support Ethereum platform and base layer research, development and education to bring decentralized protocols and tools to empower developers and produce next generation decentralized applications 

Services – Building dApps, educating the community on building tokens, creating DAOs for existing network

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Cardano Foundation

HQ – Switzerland

Objective – The Cardano Foundation oversees the development of the Cardano ecosystem and supervises its activities

Services – Expand community, constantly update legislation standards, improve accountability of members within a network 

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Stellar Foundation

HQ – USA

Objective – Support the development and growth of Stellar Network. It also oversees the legal and regulatory activities of Stellar where external stakeholders are involved.

Services – Providing tools to build foundations for financial equality on Stellar network, ensure continued growth of the network, creating infrastructure to store money

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Tezos Foundation

HQ – Switzerland

Objective – The Tezos Foundation aims to promote and aid the development of new applications to build decentralized platforms which are open and accessible. It also develops the Tezos protocol.

Services – Expand and sustain the Tezos community, secure success of Tezos by providing grants to innovative initiatives in Web3

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Litecoin Foundation

HQ – Singapore

Objective – The Litecoin Foundation’s objective is to develop and promote state of the art blockchain technologies

Services – Ensuring liquidity of tokens, building a safe infrastructure 

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Source: Legal Nodes

Types of Legal Wrappers

Based on the entity structure that’s been decided, we can move on to the type of Legal Wrapper the DAO can have 

LLCs

This structure is more popular among DAOs and lets members have control over governance with each one responsible for a task. While incorporating LLC makes DAOs more stable, an increase in the number of members would lead to some activities being run single-handedly by certain individuals such as moderation, taxation, etc

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Unincorporated General Partnerships

This structure functions like a partnership where members share responsibilities but are also subject to liabilities for the organization as well as other members. This might not work for members who have chosen not to enter into a partnership but simply contribute to the community. However, members can be protected from any unprecedented risks by ensuring protocol is on the smart contract and all the actions in the community are monitored and recorded. 

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Non Profit DAOs

UNA

Unincorporated Non-profit associations are similar in function to Unincorporated General Partnerships but can choose to be limited liability and also file taxes. Their memberships are easy to get. The members don’t gain any profits from this as such. One key factor about them is that their statutes can vary in different states

Co-Ops

This structure enables members to be able to hold ownership rights besides being contributors. This allows for variation in terms of voting rights but needs a set framework in place so that those rights can’t be misused.  

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Ownerless Foundations

These mostly exist in offshore jurisdictions which are mostly controlled by vote of the DAO but run by a council. These are the most popular types of foundation where grants are made to expand the network and develop the protocol. However, the members will not have any ownership rights but can vote on decisions. 

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Special Purpose Trusts

In this structure, a group of trustees led by an enforcer are responsible for implementing any actions on behalf of the community votes. This type of structure provides room for any legal agreement that the foundation would want to get into. This structure can be created without the need for government registration. 

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Regulations for Web3 foundation in countries

The Top 3 Legal- frameworks for DAOs:

  1. Switzerland
    a. The Swiss Foundation Law
    b. Swiss Association
    c. Decentralised Autonomous Association (DAA)
    d. Private International Act (PILA)
  2. Cayman Islands
    a. Foundation company as a legal wrapper
    b. Foundation company as a legal wrapper with a subsidiary
  3. The United States of America
    a. Limited Liability Company; Delaware & Wyoming
    b. Unincorporated Nonprofit Association; Siloed & Wrapped entity structure

A DAO LLC can help the investors secure their assets and protect themselves in case the network is facing any legal troubles. Setting them up is not difficult either. To figure out the right place for setting up a DAO LLC, we have curated the below information. 

Wyoming, USA: On March 9, Wyoming amended the Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO) Supplement (Supplement), which permits decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs) to incorporate and obtain legal status as limited liability companies under Wyoming’s Limited Liability Company Act

The company should follow the format of LLC under the recent amendment for DAOs. This will prevent companies and members from being taxed separately. This designation will also help the DAO get registered in Wyoming fast.

When you form a Wyoming LLC or form a Wyoming Corporation, the law requires you to have a Wyoming registered agent to accept important mail and legal documents on behalf of your company at a Wyoming registered office physically located in the State of Wyoming.

You also need to file for an Article of Organization with the Secretary of State for a sum of $100.

Following that, an LLC operating agreement needs to be created to establish the following

  • Organization details which include company formation, member details, 
  • Authority of members, management of the DAO, rights to vote
  • Capital allocation, profit distribution, fund management

Finally, an Employer Identification Number helps with creating a business account and expanding the company by hiring new team and getting the right infrastructure for the DAO to function

Due to the Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America, a DAO LLC registered in Wyoming is recognized in Germany as a LLC and has the rights to operate in Europe. 

The DAO can be member-managed, like an LLC, or algorithmically managed, in which case the smart contract must be editable, upgradable, updatable, and modifiable

Check out the list of legal consultants here

Switzerland, Europe: The most used jurisdictions are Switzerland and the Cayman Islands. Switzerland provides in comparison to other European jurisdictions a more flexible foundation model with a relatively easy setup and a quite moderate taxation.

Under Swiss law, an association qualifies as a group of natural persons and/or legal entities constituted and organized based on a written agreement with the pursuit of a non-economic purpose.

Associations have the following main bodies:

  • the General Assembly
  • the Board of Directors
  • the Auditor (only if certain thresholds regarding balance sheet, revenue and full-time employees are exceeded)

Switzerland has been in the news for its Crypto friendly approach with supportive local jurisdiction and seamless collaboration with local law enforcement. Some prominent foundations such as the Ethereum Foundation, Cardano Foundation have headquarters in Switzerland. There is abundant legal support available for setting up non profits in an easy way without delays. 

An association will need registration in the corporate registry and also sign up for tax declarations. Under article 60 of the Swiss Civil Code, individuals won’t be subject to liability but it will be the organization who will be acting as a united body. 

While the recognition of a foreign DAO governed by the law of a State will not pose challenges, DAOs that only have virtual presence and that do not meet constitution requirements according to the law of a State will create legal uncertainty.

Check out the list of legal consultants here

Cayman Islands: According to the Cayman Islands Foundation Companies Act, 2017, a ‘foundation company’ will be given a legal status if it functions like a civil-law foundation or common-law trust while retaining the separate legal personality and limited liability of a company. 

This benefits the establishment of DAOs where the organization can operate without shareholders as long as there are set protocols in place for its supervision which in the case of DAOs is governed by the blockchain technology. In addition to that it supports an objective method of supervision where the entities in charge do not have any vested interest in the governance of the company. 

The foundation will not be subject to income or capital gains taxes. Anyone can have membership access. However, it is only subject to the rules of the constitution how members will be able to access governance or supervision rights. 

Every foundation will have to pay an annual Companies registry fee to the Registrar in January of each year of US $854. There is often a secretary fee involved in this case along with legal fees based on whether the constitution protocols need customization.

It takes about 1-2 months to set up a foundation. The legislature also replicates the American and English legal system which makes it easy to work with for international legal firms.

Check out the list of legal consultants here

Marshall Islands: The Republic of the Marshall Islands announced that it will allow DAOs to register as legal entities early this year. The Marshall Islands passed an amended Non-Profit Entities Act 2021 which will let DAOs operate in the country. The country’s first DAO was launched by MIDAO, a domestic registering company co-founded by country’s former chief secretary Bobby Muller. 

The agreement to set up a DAO in the Marshall Islands needs to be only signed by the founders. The governance protocol needs to be incorporated on the smart contract after that. 

The members who own more than 10% of the tokens are required to disclose their identity and other information. The rest can remain anonymous. 

Non profit LLCs are also exempt from paying taxes in the Marshall Islands. The DAOs will not come under US Federal Laws but can access US postal services. 

Check out the list of legal consultants here

British Virgin Islands: The BVI’s Financial Service Commission approves the Financial Action Task Force’s definition of a virtual asset which means digital tokens can be traded and used for transactions. They allow this to be recorded as a payment or investment too. 

If Crypto exchanges provide additional services, they are subject to Securities and Investment Business Act (SIBA), 2010. This means that they will need an investment license to operate

There are no specific taxes levied against cryptocurrencies in the BVI. The BVI is a tax-neutral jurisdiction and does not have any withholding tax, capital gains taxes, income tax or corporate taxes. 

Few points to keep in mind while establishing DAOs

DAOs can have different entity structures based on the objectives of the foundation.

It is important to remember that legal entities will have more advantages than foundations which do not have a legal structure in place. They can own assets, protect the interest of the community in terms of taxation and also interact with external entities.

Source: Andreessen Horowitz – A Legal Framework for Decentralized Autonomous Organizations

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Building Community in Web3

You might be aware of how Web3 works by decentralizing the internet and putting power back to the hands of the people. But if you’re building a product in Web3 from scratch, you might wonder how to execute this concept and build something where everyone has an equal voice. 

So here’s what you need to know. The fundamental of your project should be ‘Building WITH the community’. 

Suppose you are a two man army building the potential disruptor in the Web3 space. Based on your research you have identified what you are going to do in order to bring your product to life. You announce your enterprise and excite the community with your teasers. While you’re impressed with the outcome, the finished model might not be quite like what your target market anticipated it to be. As a result, you could see low engagement, challenges in user experience, etc.

To avoid this, ‘Build COMMUNITY before product’

Founders make the mistake of building a product first and then build the community. This is a Web2 approach. In Web3, you put your idea out, get like minded people together and build the community. You can then start working on the product step by step while ensuring that you’re taking community feedback simultaneously to be in sync with the sentiments of the ecosystem.

There are multiple ways to have your community built:

1. Twitter: use as a broadcast page and for public interactions. Announce, answer and respond to every mention you get and as soon as you can. People need to know you’re an active community. This will showcase how involved the stakeholders are.

2. Telegram (start with channel, once you have bandwidth start a group as well). The Telegram channel should be used as a broadcast page. You can share key updates related to your product and the market as well as any significant movements.

3. Discord – this is where the key conversations would take place. This is the place where you can talk about the product, technology, marketing strategy and just about anything. You can eventually start recognizing the top contributors to the community and make them eligible for rewards to motivate others to contribute as well. Treat this as your team hangout area. Community is your team, especially when you’re just getting started. Have this from Day 1.

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Weekly check in: 

Community makes you more responsible. Make it a point to post weekly updates on all the channels that list all the work done in the previous week. This does two things: 

1. Makes you accountable. Since you know you have to put out weekly updates, you will not slack off 🙂

2. Gives your community ownership. When they read all the weekly accomplishments, they know they’re building this with you.

If you want to take this a step further then have weekly calls on Discord which can be joined by everyone from the community. We do this at Shardeum for the marketing team. Every Monday we have a metric+TODO call that is joined by everyone from the community. You can view some samples of the metrics here https://bit.ly/shardeum-marketing-trello

You can witness the next call by joining the Shardeum Discord. We have these call every Monday 3:30 PM UTC

Do you want to take community ownership a step further? Open up your Google Drive. Let everyone from the community have access to it the same way your team has access to it. Shardeum does this as well, you can check it here https://bit.ly/shardeum-public-drive

Have more questions on building community? Drop them here and we will help you get started

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Raising capital

While some try to sell Equity + Tokens, truly decentralized startups have no need for equity.

So going with token issuance is just fine. But it should not be done just because everyone else is doing so. If you issue a security token, that might act as equity so it needs to be a token intended for compensation for contributors of the network but also needs to have real world utility. You need to ensure that the token has returned for the community.

You will be compromising with the decentralization aspect of your project if you issue equity tokens to the community. This might create unequal voting rights eventually with the ones having equity getting more stake in decision making. Equity is the first sign ‘Never decentralized you will be’

If you only stick to tokens, your chances of transitioning to DAO are faster and smoother.

When you are trying to raise funds from VCs, angel investors, etc, make sure that your strategy about ownership and distribution rights are transparent so as to avoid any confusion regarding equity dilution. In Web2, you eventually end up giving investors more rights and risk your own community’s say in the operations. In Web3, most investors are clear about their position right from the start. After an initial round of raising funds, the enterprises move to decentralized forms of fundraising or start this right from the ground up.

Investment DAOs invest in funds as an entity where token owners vote on which projects to vote on. The treasury is supported through token sales and the governance is based on which region the DAO is established. Investment DAOs are more inclusive in nature and there is less risk of liquidity. 

Tokens can be sold: 

Private: Accredited investors, angels etc can buy the tokens. Do this if your product is not live yet. Tokens sold before product is live can qualify them as securities in some countries especially the US

Click here to access the list of Web3 VC funds. Please feel free to add more names to the list.

This is a list created by Marina Spindler of Torogos Dev. It is a comprehensive list of women investors and founders in Web3. 

Here’s a list of top Web3 investors. 

Here’s a list of top Web3 seed investors. 

Please feel free to add more names to the list of investors for everyone’s reference. You can drop in your suggestions in the comments section

To ensure decentralization you can put a maximum cap on how much investment each fund can make. This ensures no single investor has a large stake in the project. Investors with large stakes would lead to centralisation of power. Hence it’s important to keep the max cap. 

Public: You can sell tokens publicly if you have a working product live. 

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NFTs: 

A new way of getting access to capital is to create NFTs. There are no clear laws currently and we’ve seen projects selling NFTs even before the product is live. 

This is a great way for early investors to have intellectual property in your project. You can record all investments, token sales, etc on NFTs. You need to determine the pricing of minting and NFT and sell it. Be mindful of returns received in Crypto and how you can utilize them for your project. 

In order to have a concrete roadmap on fundraising with NFTs, seek legal advice. Here are a few firms you can touch base with for your queries. 

This is because NFT itself is a product. As long as you do not promise any future use cases and sell the NFTs as is. Disclaimer: none of these are legal advice, always contact your legal advisor before doing any of these.

NFTs sold without any specific product

NFTs like BAYC, Moonbirds, Cryptopunks, etc are created to establish a community for broader purposes. These NFTs are unique artworks and do not really have a product backing it. However, purchasing them will ensure that owners have access to their exclusive community and also enjoy certain perks. In the case of raising funds, it can be minted with the same goals. Once a considerable amount of NFTs are sold, you can build your product around it and allow investors some advantages early on. 

Grants: Many larger Web3 projects have their own grants programs. There are also DAOs that provide grants. 

Here’s a list of some of the Web3 grants for your reference.

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DAOs

DAOs or Decentralized Autonomous Organizations are built on rules encrypted on blockchain. They are not governed by a single individual but operate based on the votes of the members who are a part of the organization making the functioning decentralized. The data of individuals are secured on the blockchain. 

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DAO Governance and Voting Mechanism

The most common type of voting is token based voting where every proposal goes through a vote and decisions are based on the majority votes for a decision. However, a specific number of votes determines the majority and if that consensus is not reached during the voting, then the proposal falls through.

It becomes a challenge when members are not actively involved. Despite community moderations and engagement, it could become difficult to get the desired votes or lower the bar based on participation. The latter could be classified as manipulation. Additionally, it is important to set a benchmark on how many tokens an individual can possess so that certain members don’t end up turning decisions to their favor.

Image Source: 101blockchains.com

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For quick resolutions of proposal

In case of decisions that need to be made on an urgent basis and sees low participation from the community, a relative majority DAO mechanism can be established where members can vote for or against a certain decision. However, it does not factor in the number of votes so a single vote against the proposed decision could make it come to a halt. In order to solve this, members can elect one individual or a set of core members who can take time bound decisions on behalf of the community. It needs to be someone democratically chosen and trusted (could be among the most active members) who can take a lead on decision making and implementation of propositions. 

Besides this, having sub DAOs for specific functions with each being led by a community manager who is actively involved in operations and has a good working relationship with the community. These sub DAOs can focus on decisions within their domain such as finance, operations, security, technology, product updates, etc. This ensures swift decision making with minimum deliberation. It also helps community members with interest in a particular field to contribute better. 

However the ultimate decision goes through the Super DAO and decision makers found to be manipulating votes or tweaking majority consensus can be penalized. It could also revoke their rights of making decisions on behalf of the sub DAOs

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Transitioning to a DAO

Ensure you disclose information such as project stake of founders, information related to tokens, their function, trajectory of the organization to all stakeholders. Shardeum does this by making its root Google Drive folder public, besides scheduling weekly update calls for members to be aware of day to day activities. 

Before you start enabling voting for the community, make sure you conduct stakeholder surveys to understand the response mechanism and how the community prefers to be involved. 

You can eventually start with one or two votes for specific functions such as design or operations to gauge the pulse of the community. It will also give you an idea of how to manage voting when the community grows and sub DAOs will have a sense of accountability no matter the magnitude of the decision. 

You may not be able to transition to a DAO overnight but if you start right in terms of making resources and information transparent, involving the community early on, it would be an easier process. You can try to do a phase wise transition to DAO for each function with the help of sub DAOs. Once all sub DAOs are running parallely, you can start integrating the same structure in the organization top down. 

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Vesting

Vesting a portion of your tokens will ensure that the core members and investors have an interest in the well being of the DAO. Ideally, there is no specific number of tokens to be vested for each project. It will mostly depend on what function the DAO will serve. It should be discussed before the project starts so that stakeholders are aware of the time period of token vesting for core members which is an important decision making factor. 

This also prevents any pump and dump from the founders who are not building a genuine product or creating them simply based on positive market sentiment in bullish conditions. The vesting can serve as Proof of Commitment on part of the founders. Partners, advisors as well as the community who are responsible for creating a project get their token vesting conditions embedded on smart contracts and when these tokens are gradually released, the process is called vesting. 

The laws of token vesting can be drafted with the help of external legal consultants to ensure they are deployed on smart contracts and cannot be breached or tampered with. 

There needs to be a mechanism in which urgent needs of token selling can be taken into account. This can be considered at a later stage of course. Tokens can be either vested based on specific timelines as the project grows or a certain percentage of it can be allocated right at the beginning. 

Before tokens are released for vesting, there is a period called Cliff when tokens are locked for seed investors. The duration can be based on the purpose for which the tokens are allocated or to whom they are being allocated to. For example, an investor’s cliff period could be 12- 18 months. Once the stipulated Cliff period is completed, vesting period begins.

Project owners can choose to release a set amount of tokens in each phase of developing the project or choose to release some amounts of it in a calibrated manner with a set valuation for each phase. Vesting is a crucial part of tokenization for most projects as these prevent token holders from exploiting project valuations. This also prevents any fluctuation of token prices in the market.

There needs to be a fair balance between token holding among owners as well as contributors in the community. Setting aside 20% of tokens for the core team is usually done across projects. Standard vesting of tokens can be anywhere between 2 to 4 years from project launch. One factor that needs to be considered is how many years have been already put into the project at the time of fund raise. If fundraising for a project happens early, investors can have a standard 4 year vesting period. Usually the most preferred time period is 2-3 years.

While token vesting is a major aspect for project commitment, team member vesting is also needed when it comes to investing in a new project. Team vesting ideally should be on par with investor vesting. However, it need not always be the case depending on team background. New teams will find it harder to keep the vesting lower than standard. Standard is 4 years linear vesting if it’s a brand new project. If you’ve dedicated a few years of effort already with an OG team then you can bring this down to 2 years.

A proper vesting schedule motivates the team to deliver a good quality product on time without benefiting any single individual. 

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Valuations:

Most Protocols and Dapps start anywhere from $10M+. There are projects that get $100M and above valuations depending on a variety of factors such as team, product status, early traction, community strength etc. 

Since 2017, blockchain projects have gained investor attention and with their success, many early stage startups with a promising run don’t have a problem raising $100M+ even before they launch. With the prospect of more liquidity, a Web3 project can be estimated to have more value than a Web2 project when compared at similar stages of a startup journey. 

However when blockchains are valued, a few factors are taken into account

What a blockchain offers in addition to its features, such as scalability with increase in operational efficiency, rapid evolution and parallel processing of command, low cost and reduced security threat. The data that exists on the blockchain will be valuable once these elements are present on the network.

In addition to this, how a blockchain validates transactions, its reward mechanisms, etc are important to analyze before setting its value. Besides, how a blockchain benefits the ecosystem – whether on its own or by being incorporated into a technology application, whether there is a unique feature that can become a stepping stone for other networks are scrutinized by investors before they bet on it. 

Lastly, the applicability of blockchain, its utility and source of revenue are also of prime importance for investors. So when setting valuations of a project, these need to be kept in mind. 

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